Somers EC, Eschenauer GA, Troost JP, et al.. death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission risk, air flow requirement, and secondary infection. Results: A total of 12 qualified literature including 8979 COVID-19 individuals were recruited, and they were divided into experimental group ( em n /em ?=?2673) and control group ( em n /em ?=?6306). Using a random-effect model, it is found that the GM-CSF antibody treatment was associated with a 23% decrease of the risk of death [odds percentage (OR): 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21C0.56, em p /em ? ?0.0001] and a 20% enhancement of air flow (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.80, em p /em ?=?0.0002). GM-CSF antibody treatment did not have a significant correlation to secondary infection and improved risk of ICU admission in COVID-19 individuals, which may be attributed to the older age and the space of stay. Conclusions: Severe COVID-19 individuals can benefit from GM-CSF antibodies. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: COVID-19, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating element, Aantibody, Meta-analysis Intro COVID-19 has been of global concern due to its severe outcomes and strong infectivity that significantly endangers public health. Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, hypotension, pulmonary edema, disseminated S-Gboxin intravascular coagulation, respiratory failure, and even acute respira-tory stress syndrome (ARDS). Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating element (GM-CSF) antibodies bind to related receptors commonly applied to autoimmune and inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. GM-CSF plays an important part in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 for its immune hyperresponse. Therefore, anti-GM-CSF therapy has been applied to hospitalized individuals with severe COVID-19 and offers accomplished particular results.1C3 In the announced clinical tests, GM-CSF antibodies, S-Gboxin including mavrilimumab [Clinicialtrial.gov identifier: “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT04492514″,”term_id”:”NCT04492514″NCT04492514], lenzilumab [Clinicialtrial.gov identifier: “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT04351152″,”term_id”:”NCT04351152″NCT04351152], and tocilizumab [Clinicialtrial.gov identifier: “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT04306705″,”term_id”:”NCT04306705″NCT04306705] have been used in the treatment of COVID-19. However, their underlying pharmacological mechanisms, security, and adverse events in the treatment of COVID-19 have not been clearly clarified. In addition, the security and effectiveness of GM-CSF antibodies in the treatment of COVID-19 will also be controversial; in particular, mortality, drug use, and secondary infections should be of concern.4C6 Therefore, the present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate GM-CSF antibody treatment in COVID-19 individuals. Methods Inclusion and exclusion criteria and data collection J.G. and W.W were responsible for the literature search and data analyses. After searching for relevant literature on online databases, duplicate studies were excluded using EndNote X9; non-eligible literature was further excluded by critiquing the full-text. Any disagreement was resolved by the third investigator (S. L). Briefly, literature concerning GM-CSF antibody treatment only, S-Gboxin or in combination with additional specific treatments, of adult COVID-19 individuals were included. Those studies that involved non-adult COVID-19 individuals and which were without obvious results were excluded. Searching strategy The study was performed based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Evaluations and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement checklist. J.G. and W.W. were responsible for searching relevant literature in the Web of Technology, Embase, Pubmed, Google scholar, and additional databases (Baidu scholar, CNKI). Referrals for each piece of literature were by hand examined. Any disagreement was solved by the third author (Z.X.). In detail, relevant literature published from 1 December 2019 yr until 1 January 2021 with the following search keywords were looked: GM-CSF, CSF, tocilizumab, atlizumab, actemra, roactemra, kevzara, sylvant, CNTO-328, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, nCoV, pneumonia, corona-viru, 2019 nCoV, COVID-19, WuHan, lenzilumab, TJM, recombinant monoclonal antibodies against granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating element, monoclonal antibodies against granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating element, antibodies against granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating element, and mavrilimumab. Study selection and data extraction J. G. and W.W were responsible for extracting data through eligible literature, including the quantity of recruited individuals, therapeutic strategies, air flow conditions, ICU admission risk, death quantity, severe case quantity, risks of COVID-19, length of stay, secondary infection, and severe events (e.g., sepsis, acute kidney injury, cardiac injury) etc. Assessment of study quality Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Level (NOS)7 (Supplemental Table S1). Statistical analysis Pooled estimates were presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intrevals (CIs) and visualized by forest plots. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by 2, em I /em 2, df, and Tau2. Bad em I /em 2 ideals were arranged to zero. 25%, 50%, and 75% em I /em 2indicated a low, moderate, and high heterogeneity, respectively. Publication bias was assessed by using funnel plots and Eggers asymmetry test. Revman 5.3 was utilized for statistical control. Results Selection of qualified literatures Following a searching strategy explained in Number 1, 12,577 Oxytocin Acetate pieces of literature were in the beginning recognized based on the assessment of the titles and abstracts. We excluded 12,565 pieces of literature purely conformed to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. At last,.