Current challenges with organic acids, however, are their effectiveness affecting luminal pH at an authentic supplementation level without affecting appetite or give food to intake of nursery pigs

Current challenges with organic acids, however, are their effectiveness affecting luminal pH at an authentic supplementation level without affecting appetite or give food to intake of nursery pigs. chemicals in enhancing intestinal development and wellness during nursery stage. Among many potential useful give food to chemicals, the palatability from the ingredient as well as the ideal supplemental level are mixed, and these should be considered when applying into nursery pig diets. Considering different stressors pigs deal with in the post-weaning period, research on nutritional intervention using a single feed additive or a combination of different additives that can enhance feed intake, increase weight gain, and reduce mortality and morbidity are needed to provide viable solutions for pig producers. Further research in relation to the feed palatability, supplemental level, as well as interactions between different ingredients are needed. to and before weaning and had lower relative abundances of five genera that play key roles in nutrient metabolism (is one of the most evident change after weaning (78). It was postulated the alterations in the composition and activity of the GIT microbial community is usually correlated with pathogenic infections after weaning (4, 82). A lower stability of the microbial community structure was observed in the ileal digesta of Angiotensin III (human, mouse) weaned pigs than that of Angiotensin III (human, mouse) unweaned pigs (78). The intestinal bacterial community composition was shown to become stable at 6 months of age (69). Table 2 summarizes the impact of weaning age on intestinal structure and function. Nutritional Intervention To assist in overcoming the weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and depressed growth, effective dietary strategies need to be explored. Feed additives including protein hydrolysates, emulsifiers, prebiotics, probiotics, feed enzymes, nucleotides, organic acids, phytogenic feed additives, Angiotensin III (human, mouse) immunoglobulin-containing compounds, and/or mycotoxin deactivators are commonly used in the nursery pig diets to promote growth and intestinal health (see Table 3). The following session reviews the effects of selected feed additives. Table 3 Selected feed additives targeting intestinal health of newly weaned pigs with additional references. count(84)35 day35Increased ADG and final body weight, and reduced serum urea nitrogen, increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM and IgA, and increased villus height of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum(85)5.97 0.14 kg15Modulated the expression of genes related to inflammatory response and anti-oxidant activity leading to a reduction on serum cortisol after lipopolysaccharide challenge(86)Fermented soybean protein5.8 0.9 kg28Improved ADG, ADFI, FCR, and increased digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, fat, Ca, P, and increased villus height of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum(87)Emulsifiers6.0 0.2 kg14Positively affected fat digestibility(88)7.9 1.0 kg35Increased ADG, digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, and crude fat, and decreased serum triglyceride concentration(89)7.2 0.1 kg19Increased villus height of duodenum and jejunum, enhanced barrier function and positively affected fat digestibility(90)Probiotics7.7 1.1 kg21Increased feed intake, ADG, and increased digestibility of nitrogen and phosphorus(91)7.6 0.6 kg42Improved ADG and FCR during 14-day post-weaning, increased protein digestibility, increased villus height of jejunum and ileum, and increased expression of tight junction proteins when added into a low crude protein diet.(92)21 day16Modulated intestinal microbiota by increasing phylum in the ileum and increased phylum which includes in the colon(93)8.4 0.2 kg28Microbial shifts in the porcine Rabbit Polyclonal to NPM gut in response to diets containing were similar to the response to which containing antibiotics(67)Prebiotics6.3 0.3 kg28Increased growth efficiency, increased digestibility of dry matter and affected concentrations(94)6.13 0.13 kg14Selectively stimulated the number of whereas suppressed and and improved intestinal barrier function(95)5.65 0.27 kg21Upregulated the expression of TLR4 and calprotectin protein alleviating inflammation in the intestine and decreased diarrhea incidence challenged with enterotoxigenic reduced Angiotensin III (human, mouse) K88(99)7.19 0.45 kg28Improved ADG and FCR, increased digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, and increased the fecal abundance of spp. and reduced counts(100)8.09 0.25 kg28Modulated the microbiota by Angiotensin III (human, mouse) increasing and and decreasing and and increased count in the colon(108)6.42 0.12 kg42Enhanced growth performance and digestibility of dry matter, and nitrogen. Reduced blood creatinine and fecal NH3(109)Nucleotides4.8 0.4 kg21Improved ADFI, positively affected ADG, and positively enhanced villus structure(110)7.3 0.1 kg28Improved ADG and ADFI(111)7.3 0.3 kg42Increased final body weight, ADG, and growth efficiency, and increased digestibility of dry mater and energy(112)Organic acids7.2 0.2 kg42Improved ADG and FCR, increased villus height, increased acetic and propionic acid concentrations, and altered microbial community structure(113)6.3 0.6 kg14Reduced inflammatory cytokines and altered microbial community composition(114)8.63 1.56 kg28Improved.