Allostatic Load/Overload leads to Neuropathology C When experiencing an approaching threat, or in anticipation of a threatening experience, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulates a response mediated by glucocorticoids (also known as stress hormones) to increase the organisms fitness to cope with the threat [41, 42]. and endoplasmic reticulum. The Lon protease performs a similar protecting function inside mitochondria. Impairment of the Proteasome and/or the Lon protease results in the build up of harmful oxidized proteins in the brain, which can cause severe neuronal stress. Recent evidence points to possible proteolytic dysfunction and build up of damaged, oxidized proteins as factors that may determine the appearance and severity of psychotic symptoms in mood disorders. Thus, critical interactions between oxidative stress, Proteasome, and the Lon protease may provide keys to the molecular mechanisms involved in emotional regulation, and may also be of great help in designing and screening novel anxiolytics and antidepressants. molecular imaging techniques, combined with positron emission tomography (PET) have been successfully used Rabbit Polyclonal to RUNX3 to elucidate neuropathological brain changes and their relation to schizophrenia . These techniques may also help to elucidate pathophysiological brain changes associated with specific stress disorders in the future. 1.2. Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorder and Oxidative Stress C Normal levels of stress can have a great adaptive value, developing the alert transmission that triggers behavioral, physiological, and cognitive changes, that allow us to deal with novel situations or threats . Nevertheless, the persistence of a high alert state, without corresponding risk circumstances, may cause an individual to develop maladaptive responses to real stress, with the manifestation of syndromes such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, other phobias, and interpersonal stress disorders . Similarly, the ability of the body to maintain homeostasis in response to stressors, allostasis, has great benefit, however when severity or frequency of stress is usually too great the response systems become overloaded, which leads to pathophysiology or allostatic weight/overload . This illustrates the necessity of health-promoting behaviors and practices Dipraglurant that can help maintain allostasis over the long term to avoid allostatic weight. 1.2.1. Allostatic Weight/Overload prospects to Neuropathology C When going through an approaching threat, or in anticipation of a threatening experience, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stimulates a response mediated by glucocorticoids (also known as stress hormones) to increase the organisms fitness to cope with the threat [41, 42]. As a protective acute-phase response system this is highly effective and efficient in maintaining allostasis. However, the long-term maintenance of such a defensive state requires an additional physiological cost that can overburden the system and lead to allostatic weight/overload. Increasing evidence indicates that hypersecretion of glucocorticoids and dysregulation of glucocorticoid receptor function is usually involved in the pathogenesis of stress disorders . Postmortem studies have revealed that oxidative damage to limbic structures is responsible for modulation of stress behavior . For example, the HPA axis is usually activated during stress responses, and can induce significant hippocampal cellular oxidation . In parallel, clinical evidence shows that patients with panic disorder and obsessiveCcompulsive disorder, have elevated levels of oxidized compounds in their peripheral blood, red blood cells, mononuclear cells, urine and cerebrospinal fluid . Elevated glucocorticoid levels are associated with an increase in oxidant production and therefore elevated oxidative damage , and should, therefore, be considered a possible mediator between oxidative stress Dipraglurant and anxiety disorders. Glucocorticoids may also directly affect mitochondrial metabolism and may regulate mitochondrial bioenergetics in rat liver mitochondria [48, 49]. Recent studies have revealed that glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and the generation of oxidants. . Translocation of glucocorticoids into mitochondria via the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate mitochondrial gene expression [51, 52]. Even though mechanism of this regulation remains unclear, recent studies indicate that release of cytochrome C and calcium from mitochondria is usually altered when rat brain cells are treated with corticosterone. Regulation of mitochondrial function by corticosterone appears to Dipraglurant correlate with neuroprotection; that is, treatment with low doses of corticosterone experienced a neuroprotective effect, whereas treatment with high doses of corticosterone was harmful to cortical neurons [53, 54]. These results may ultimately contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids and stress regulate cellular plasticity and maintain allostasis , and to the future development of improved therapeutics. 1.2.2. Animal Models link Oxidative.